constexpr placement new

Document #: P2747R2
Date: 2024-03-19
Project: Programming Language C++
Audience: EWG
Reply-to: Barry Revzin

1 Revision History

R0 [P2747R0] of this paper proposed three related features:

  1. Allowing casts from cv void* to cv T* during constant evaluation
  2. Allowing placement new during constant evaluation
  3. Better handling an array of uninitialized objects

Since then, [P2738R1] was adopted in Varna, which resolves problem #1. Separately, #3 is kind of a separate issue and there are ongoing conversations about how to handle this in order to make inplace_vector [P0843R9] actually during during constant evaluation for all types. So this paper refocuses to just solve problem #2 and has been renamed accordingly.

Since [P2747R1], included support for arrays (yet another benefit over std::construct_at).

2 Introduction

Consider this implementation of std::uninitialized_copy, partially adjusted from cppreference:

template <input_iterator I, sentinel_for<I> S, nothrow_forward_iterator I2>
constexpr auto uninitialized_copy(I first, S last, I2 d_first) -> I2 {
    using T = iter_value_t<I2>;
    I2 current = d_first;
    try {
        for (; first != last; ++first, (void)++current) {
            ::new (std::addressof(*current)) T(*first);
    } catch (...) {
        std::destroy(d_first, current);

This fails during constant evaluation today because placement new takes a void*. But it takes a void* that points to a T - we know that by construction. It’s just that we happen to lose that information along the way.

Moreover, that’s not actually how uninitialized_copy is specified, we actually do this:

- ::new (std::addressof(*current)) T(*first);
+ ::new (voidify(*current)) T(*first);


template<class T>
  constexpr void* voidify(T& obj) noexcept {
    return const_cast<void*>(static_cast<const volatile void*>(std::addressof(obj)));

Which exists to avoid users having written a global placement new that takes a T*.

The workaround, introduced by [P0784R7], is a new library function:

template<class T, class... Args>
constexpr T* construct_at( T* p, Args&&... args );

This is a magic library function that is specified to do the same voidify dance, but which the language simply recognizes as an allowed thing to do. std::construct_at is explicitly allowed in [expr.const]/6:

6 […] Similarly, the evaluation of a call to std​::​construct_­at or std​::​ranges​::​construct_­at ([specialized.construct]) does not disqualify E from being a core constant expression unless the first argument, of type T*, does not point to storage allocated with std​::​allocator<T> or to an object whose lifetime began within the evaluation of E, or the evaluation of the underlying constructor call disqualifies E from being a core constant expression.

It’s good that we actually have a solution - we can make uninitialized_copy usable during constant evaluation simply by using std::construct_at. There’s even a paper to do so ([P2283R2]). But that paper also had hinted at a larger problem: std::construct_at is an extremely limited tool as compared to placement new.

Consider the different kinds of initialization we have in C++:

placement new
value initialization new (p) T(args...) std::construct_at(p, args...)
default initialization new (p) T Not currently possible. [P2283R1] proposed std::default_construct_at
list initialization new (p) T{a, b} Not currently possible, could be a new function?
designated initialization new (p) T{.a=a, .b=b} Not possible to even write a function

That’s already not a great outlook for std::construct_at, but for use-cases like uninitialized_copy, we have to also consider the case of guaranteed copy elision:

auto get_object() -> T;

void construct_into(T* p) {
    // this definitely moves a T
    std::construct_at(p, get_object());

    // this definitely does not move a T
    :::new (p) T(get_object());

    // this now also definitely does not move a T, but it isn't practical
    // and you also have to deal with delightful edge cases - like what if
    // T is actually constructible from defer?
    struct defer {
        constexpr operator T() const { return get_object(); }
    std::construct_at(p, defer{});

Placement new is only unsafe because the language allows you to do practically anything - want to placement new a std::string into a double*? Sure, why not. But during constant evaluation we already have a way of limiting operations to those that make sense - we can require that the pointer we’re constructing into actually is a T*. The fact that we have to go through a void* to get there doesn’t make it unsafe.

Now that we have support for static_cast<T*>(static_cast<void*>(p)), we can adopt the same rules to make placement new work.

Additionally, std::construct_at does not support arrays (see also [LWG3436]), but we can make it work with placement without much issue - another reason the language is simply better:

int* p = std::allocator<int>{}.allocate(3);

new (p) int[]{1, 2, 3};       // ok
new (p + 1) int[]{2, 3};      // error (in this paper)
new (p) int[]{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}; // error

Note that the smaller array case could probably be made to work, but I’m not aware of a strong reason to want it - so it seems like a good start to allow the correct-size array case and reject the wrong-size array case for both directions of wrong size.

3 Wording

Today, we have an exception for std::construct_at and std::ranges::construct_at to avoid evaluating the placement new that they do internally. But once we allow placement new, we no longer need an exception for those cases - we simply need to move the lifetime requirement from the exception into the general rule for placement new.

Clarify that implicit object creation does not happen during constant evaluation in 6.7.2 [intro.object]/14:

14 An Except during constant evaluation, an operation that begins the lifetime of an array of unsigned char or std​::​byte implicitly creates objects within the region of storage occupied by the array.

[Note 5: The array object provides storage for these objects. — end note]

Any Except during constant evaluation, any implicit or explicit invocation of a function named operator new or operator new[] implicitly creates objects in the returned region of storage and returns a pointer to a suitable created object.

[Note 6: Some functions in the C++ standard library implicitly create objects ([obj.lifetime], [c.malloc], [mem.res.public], [bit.cast], [cstring.syn]). — end note]

Change []/15:

15 During an evaluation of a constant expression, a call to an a replaceable allocation function is always omitted ([expr.const]).

Note 1:  Only new-expressions that would otherwise result in a call to a replaceable global allocation function can be evaluated in constant expressions ([expr.const]). — end note ]

Change 7.7 [expr.const]/5.18 (paragraph 14 here for context was the [P2738R1] fix to allow converting from void* to T* during constant evaluation, as adjusted by [CWG2755]):

  • (5.14) a conversion from a prvalue P of type “pointer to cv void” to a “cv1 pointer to T”, where T is not cv2 void, unless P points to an object whose type is similar to T;
  • (5.15)
  • (5.16)
  • (5.17)
  • (5.18) a new-expression ( []), unless either
    • (5.18.1) the selected allocation function is a replaceable global allocation function ([new.delete.single], [new.delete.array]) and the allocated storage is deallocated within the evaluation of E, or
    • (5.18.2) the selected allocation function is a non-allocating form ([new.delete.placement]) with an allocated type T, where
      • ( the placement argument to the new-expression points to an object that is pointer-interconvertible with an object of type T or, if T is an array type, with the first element of an object of type T, and
      • ( the placement argument points to storage whose duration began within the evaluation of E;

Remove the special case for construct_at in 7.7 [expr.const]/6:

  • 6 For the purposes of determining whether an expression E is a core constant expression, the evaluation of the body of a member function of std​::​allocator<T> as defined in [allocator.members], where T is a literal type, is ignored. Similarly, the evaluation of the body of std​::​construct_at or std​::​ranges​::​construct_at is considered to include only the initialization of the T object if the first argument (of type T*) points to storage allocated with std​::​allocator<T> or to an object whose lifetime began within the evaluation of E.

Change 17.6.2 [new.syn] to mark the placement new functions constexpr:

// all freestanding
namespace std {
  // [new.delete], storage allocation and deallocation
  [[nodiscard]] constexpr void* operator new  (std::size_t size, void* ptr) noexcept;
  [[nodiscard]] constexpr void* operator new[](std::size_t size, void* ptr) noexcept;

And likewise in [new.delete.placement]:

[[nodiscard]] constexpr void* operator new(std::size_t size, void* ptr) noexcept;

2 Returns: ptr.

[[nodiscard]] constexpr void* operator new[](std::size_t size, void* ptr) noexcept;

5 Returns: ptr.

3.1 Feature-Test Macro

Bump the value of __cpp_constexpr in 15.11 [cpp.predefined]:

- __cpp_constexpr 202306L
+ __cpp_constexpr 2024XXL

And add a new __cpp_lib_constexpr_new in 17.3.2 [version.syn]:

#define __cpp_lib_constexpr_new 2024XXL // freestanding, also in <new>

4 References

[CWG2755] Jens Maurer. 2023-06-28. Incorrect wording applied by P2738R1.

[LWG3436] Jonathan Wakely. std::construct_at should support arrays.

[P0784R7] Daveed Vandevoorde, Peter Dimov,Louis Dionne, Nina Ranns, Richard Smith, Daveed Vandevoorde. 2019-07-22. More constexpr containers.

[P0843R9] Gonzalo Brito Gadeschi, Timur Doumler, Nevin Liber, David Sankel. 2023-09-14. inplace_vector.

[P2283R1] Michael Schellenberger Costa. 2021-04-19. constexpr for specialized memory algorithms.

[P2283R2] Michael Schellenberger Costa. 2021-11-26. constexpr for specialized memory algorithms.

[P2738R1] Corentin Jabot, David Ledger. 2023-02-13. constexpr cast from void*: towards constexpr type-erasure.

[P2747R0] Barry Revzin. 2022-12-17. Limited support for constexpr void*.

[P2747R1] Barry Revzin. 2023-12-10. constexpr placement new.