|Previously reviewed by:
We propose to define what it means to include the C <stdatomic.h> header from C++ code. The goal is to enable "shared" headers that use atomics, and can be included from either C or C++ code.
As we previously suggested in P0063R0, it would be nice to have a real interoperability story for C atomics and C++ atomics. In the interest of time, and since it appeared to be less essential and more controversial than the rest of that proposal, this suggestion was not pursued further in later revisions of that paper. Nonetheless, it remains a gaping hole in the interoperability story between C and C++. The solution proposed here is based on one that has been used by Android platform code for several years.
It is desirable to make C language header files directly usable by C++ code. It is increasingly common for such header files to include declarations that rely on atomics.
For example, a header may wish to declare a function that provides saturating
("clamped") addition on atomic integers. This can easily be implemented in the
common subset of C and C++, except that we have no convenient and portable way to
include the definition of names such as
atomic_int, that are
<atomic> in C++ and
<stdatomic.h> in C.
The best we can currently
do in portable code is to use an explicit preprocessor test followed by conditional
inclusion of either
In the former case, we then have
using declarations to inject the required types and functions
into the global namespace. Thus we end up with something like
#ifdef __cplusplus #include <atomic> using std::atomic_int; using std::memory_order; using std::memory_order_acquire; ... #else /* not __cplusplus */ #include <stdatomic.h> #endif /* __cplusplus */ ... int saturated_fetch_add(atomic_int *loc, int value, memory_order order);
This approach relies on the currently implicit assumption or wish that the representation of C and C++ atomics are compatible.
Although certainly possible, this is very clumsy compared to the level of interoperability we normally provide; for other language features we commonly provide a C header file that can be included from C++, and provides the necessary declarations. Here we propose to do the same for atomics.
The story here is somewhat confused by the fact that most of
.h compatibility headers currently only appear in
the deprecated features section under D.5 C standard library headers [depr.c.headers].
A recent paper,
proposes to undeprecate them. We strongly agree with this paper that the
current deprecation of these headers does not reflect reality.
Many of them are widely used and heavily relied upon.
This proposal assumes that at least some of those headers will be preserved.
C and C++ atomics were originally designed together. The original design ensured that the non-generic pieces of the C++ atomics library were usable as a C library. This interoperability story became less clear as a result of several later decisions:
_Atomic type qualifier,
_Atomic(T) type specifier. This happened late enough in the
C++11 standardization cycle that there wasn't much of an opportunity for C++
stdatomic.h in a
Shortly before finalizing C++11, we briefly discussed making
usable from C++ by defining a macro
An earlier version of this proposal, approved by SG1, did the same.
However LEWG did not appear to approve of defining an implementer-namespace
_Atomic(T) in a C++ header. (See below for details.)
Hence this version of the proposal uses a different name, on the
assuption that WG14 would be willing to introduce a corresponding name for
The latter idea was floated on the WG14 reflector, and not immediately shot
down. That clearly does not yet amount to approval. But so far we have a weak
indication that it may be preferred over the alternative of simply dropping
_Atomic from the C and C++ common subset.
We propose to add a header
stdatomic.h to the C++ standard. This would
mirror the identically named C header, and provide comparable functionality.
However, instead of defining it in terms of the C header, we propose that it have
the following effects:
This assumes that C would correspondingly define
identifiers introduced by the
<atomic> header into the global name space.
Although this provides functionality very similar to the C header, it is unlikely that it will be exactly the same. As usual, it is the responsibility of the author of a C and C++ shared header to ensure that the code is correct in both languages.
This proposal makes no effort to support an equivalent of
_Atomic type qualifier,
as opposed to the type specifier (which is spelled with parentheses).
This is intentional; accommodating the qualifier would be a major language
change, particularly since it is the only type qualifier that can affect
We believe this is the minimum required to conveniently use atomics in shared headers.
Aside from the renaminc of
this proposal reflects current practice in Android platform code since the
Android Lollipop release in 2014.
That uses a single include file shared between C and C++, which may not be the optimal
In an ideal world, this would be easy to support in various compiler environments.
The main requirement is is that C and C++ atomics should be implemented identically
and use the same ABI conventions. There is no fundamental reason to do anything
Implementing ordering constraints in incompatible ways is already greatly
undesirable, in that mixed language programs with
annotations would no longer be sequentially consistent. Using incompatible
locking schemes for large atomics would generally double the amount of space
required for the lock table, and complicate ABI conventions, with no
Our preliminary experiments with gcc-4.9 found no differences on x86-64, though it did find some seeminly gratuitous alignment differences om ARMv7. Unfortunately later information from Jonathan Wakely and David Goldblatt points out that gcc in fact relies on two separate mechanisms for determining atomics alignment in C and C++, and these differ in some corner cases, since alignment decisions are made by the compiler in one case and the library the other. Although this is nontrivial to change, and requires C++ ABI changes in those corner cases, those changes appear desirable, even independent of this proposal. Some applications already assume compatible C++ and C ABIs for atomics, and those will currently break. And the current approach appears to preclude a consistent ABI between e.g. gcc and clang. There appears to be general agreement that this should be fixed in any case. More discussion can be found at https://gcc.gnu.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=71660 .
Thus the implementation effort for meaningful conformance to this proposal will vary between adding a simple header file on one hand, and appreciable changes to the existing atomics alignment logic in either C or C++ on the other. The implementation effort for minimal conformance consists of only the header file, since we can't normatively say anything about C and C++ consistency.
We do not believe there is a strong need to introduce a
that only introduces names into the
std:: namespace. The
<stdatomic.h> is entirely to support
headers shared between C and C++, not to import a C facility into C++.
A shared header will not be able to take advantage of names introduced into the
There is an argument that
<cstdatomic> should be provided
anyway for uniformity. It's not clear that this outweighs the cost of introducing
a header that we expect to get essentially no use. There did not appear to be sentiment
in SG1 for adding
I propose to add a new section to the standard, placed at the editor's discretion. The general intent is to place it in the same section as other C compatibility headers that we expect to keep around indefinitely. This facility is not intended for future removal. Unfortunately, many other C headers are currently listed as deprecated, in spite of what appears to be a consensus that they are not destined for future removal either. Note that P0619 discusses this issue in more detail.
If we keep the current organization, LWG seemed to favors placing this in the atomics section over Appendix D. LEWG was split between those. A new section for all such compatibility features seems like another, perhaps better, option.
Add a new section:
XX.Y.Z C Compatibility for atomics [atomics.compat]
<stdatomic.h>provides the following definitions:
template<class T> using std-atomic = std::atomic<T>; // exposition only #define _Atomic(T) std-atomic<T> #define ATOMIC_BOOL_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_CHAR_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_CHAR16_T_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_CHAR32_T_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_WCHAR_T_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_SHORT_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_INT_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_LONG_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_LLONG_LOCK_FREE see below #define ATOMIC_POINTER_LOCK_FREE see below using std::memory_order; // see below using std::memory_order_relaxed; // see below using std::memory_order_consume; // see below using std::memory_order_acquire; // see below using std::memory_order_release; // see below using std::memory_order_acq_rel; // see below using std::memory_order_seq_cst; // see below using std::atomic_flag; // see below using std::atomic_bool; // see below using std::atomic_char; // see below using std::atomic_schar; // see below using std::atomic_uchar; // see below using std::atomic_short; // see below using std::atomic_ushort; // see below using std::atomic_int; // see below using std::atomic_uint; // see below using std::atomic_long; // see below using std::atomic_ulong; // see below using std::atomic_llong; // see below using std::atomic_ullong; // see below using std::atomic_char8_t; // see below using std::atomic_char16_t; // see below using std::atomic_char32_t; // see below using std::atomic_wchar_t; // see below using std::atomic_int8_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint8_t; // see below using std::atomic_int16_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint16_t; // see below using std::atomic_int32_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint32_t; // see below using std::atomic_int64_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint64_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_least8_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_least8_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_least16_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_least16_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_least32_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_least32_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_least64_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_least64_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_fast8_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_fast8_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_fast16_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_fast16_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_fast32_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_fast32_t; // see below using std::atomic_int_fast64_t; // see below using std::atomic_uint_fast64_t; // see below using std::atomic_intptr_t; // see below using std::atomic_uintptr_t; // see below using std::atomic_size_t; // see below using std::atomic_ptrdiff_t; // see below using std::atomic_intmax_t; // see below using std::atomic_uintmax_t; // see below using std::atomic_is_lock_free; // see below using std::atomic_load; // see below using std::atomic_load_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_store; // see below using std::atomic_store_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_exchange; // see below using std::atomic_exchange_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_compare_exchange_strong; // see below using std::atomic_compare_exchange_strong_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_compare_exchange_weak; // see below using std::atomic_compare_exchange_weak_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_add; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_add_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_sub; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_sub_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_or; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_or_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_and; // see below using std::atomic_fetch_and_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_flag_test_and_set; // see below using std::atomic_flag_test_and_set_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_flag_clear; // see below using std::atomic_flag_clear_explicit; // see below using std::atomic_thread_fence; // see below using std::atomic_signal_fence; // see below
Each using-declaration for A in the synopsis above makes available the same entity as
std::A declared in
<atomic>. Each macro listed above other than
_Atomic(T)is defined as in
<atomic>. It is unspecified whether
<stdatomic.h>makes available any declarations in namespace
Each of the using-declarations for
uintptr_tlisted above is defined if and only if the implementation defines the corresponding typedef name in [atomics.syn].
_Atomicmacro, nor any of the non-macro global namespace declarations are provided by any C++ standard library header other than
Recommended Practice: Implementations should ensure that C and C++ representations of atomic objects are compatible, so that the same object can be accessed as both an
_Atomic(T)from C code and
atomic<T>from C++ code. The representations should be the same, and the mechanisms used to ensure atomicity and memory ordering should be compatible.
Add a feature test macro in 17.3.2 [version.syn]:
#define __cpp_lib_stdatomic_h 202XYYL //also in
The above was originally based on the part of the Android
<stdatomic.h> header that is used when compiling platform C++
R0, with changes that were incorporated into R1, was approved by SG1 in Jacksonville, 6/17/4/10/0. R1 was not discussed in Rapperswil, since LEWG was bandwidth-constrained.
R1 was briefly discussed by LEWG in San Diego. LEWG voted mildly against putting "_Atomic(T) ... in the set of tokens that are cross-language compatible" and, in a separate poll, mildly against forwarding to LWG. There was a consensus in favor of "Revise proposal along the lines of `effects equivalent to (the goals of this paper)'".
The concerns I heard, both during the meeting, and during a later discussion with Titus Winters were:
_Atomic in C++.
atomic_int in C++ would yield objects that
have member functions, which differs from C.
These unfortunately raised some raised additional questions, which we did not have a chance to pursue until the Cologne meeting:
_Atomic. (Since the identifier is in the system namespace, implementations
could choose to keep it anyway.) Would this resolve LEWG concerns? Would it reduce
SG1 consensus? There is weak evidence that this is unpopular in WG14.
_Atomic in C, as proposed in R2.
Is this satisfactory for SG1? LEWG? WG14?
It is true that clang already assigns a meaning to
_Atomic. But it is not
clear that this breaks anything, since we would effectively be replacing that
with a presumed compatible implementation if
stdatomic.h is included
in C++ code.
atomic_int in C++ already contains member functions in C++,
which does differ from C. But this seems entirely unavoidable, and was part of the original
C/C++ atomics design, which was intended to support the kind of compatibility we're looking
for here. Furthermore, we clearly want the standalone C++ atomics functions to be applicable
to C-compatible atomics. That requires that C atomics be convertible to
atomic<T>, which makes
it hard to see how
_Atomic(int), if we keep it,
could not have member functions in C++.
During follow-up discussion in Cologne, using R3, which replaced the
define with another name, and based on the preceding points, SG1 expressed a preference
to restore the macro name to
_Atomic. LEWG agreed, and agreed to forward this
to LWG. An LEWG vote on whether to put this into Appendix D was entirely inconclusive.
Changes made to reflect SG1 discussion Jacksonville. SG1 voted 6/17/4/1/0 to advance to to LEWG, but suggested a few changes:
using declarations required for the
Note that the SG1 discussion was slightly incorrect in that it overlooked the recent change
memory_oder to an
enum class. But in retrospect it's not at
all clear that this affects our proposal. It simply adds one more easily avoidable
incompatibility between C and C++ usages of the header.
Revised the proposal to define
atomic_generic_type (placeholder name)
Added the last section about the LEWG discussion in San Diego.
Corrected angle brackets to parentheses in the wording of the note. (Pointed out on the reflector by Jonathan Wakely.) Added abstract.
Based on SG1 and LEWG direction in Cologne, changed macro name back to
Added suggestion for new appendix. Added
atomic_char8_t, and improved the
wording, both based on Daniel Krügler's suggestions.
Clarified / corrected the use of
stdatomic.h in Android C++ code.
I was previously mistaken about the
use of this header outside the platform code. It is used by code in the platform itself,
but is not currently exported through the NDK to client code. Note that the platform itself
still includes a large amount of C++ code.
Changes in response to LWG comments: