Movability of Single-pass Iterators

Published Proposal,

ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG21 14882: Programming Language — C++


We propose move-only non-forward iterators in the ranges namespace along with a refined, tag-less iterator taxonomy with the express intent to increase safety and expressiveness of programs handling input iterators.

I want to move(it), move(it), y’all want to move(it);

1. Changes

1.1. Revision 1

2. Introduction

Non-forward Input iterators and output iterators, also known as "Single-pass iterators" are semantically move-only. The standard states:

Note: For input iterators, a == b does not imply ++a == ++b (Equality does not guarantee the substitution property or referential transparency.) Algorithms on input iterators should never attempt to pass through the same iterator twice. They should be single pass algorithms.

This means that once an iterator is copied, only one of the copies can be read-from if either one is incremented, which make the usefulness of such object questionable. Deferencing multiple copies of a single pass iterator often exposes undefined or invalid behavior if either one is incremented: the following example exposes Undefined behavior:

auto other = some_input_iterator;
std::cout << *(++other) << *some_input_iterator << '\n';

It would, therefore, make sense that classes satisfying the InputIterator concept shall only be required to be movable.

Alas, Single-pass iterators and many classes satisfying its requirements predate C++11, they do therefore have move only semantic with copy syntax. In that regard, they are similar to auto_ptr.

3. Terminology

This paper redefines the requirements of some concepts as specified in the Working Draft In the rest of this paper

4. Scope

This paper proposes changes targeting C++20. Because the modifications proposed here changes some requirements and concepts introduced by Ranges, the authors strongly suggest they are considered for the inclusion in the same version of the standard. Indeed, Concepts introduced by ranges gives us a unique opportunity to make the modifications proposed, as they might, in some cases, break code, if introduced after the publication of C++20.

4.1. Non-Goal

As a large amount of code depends on the Input/Output iterators requirements as specified by C++17, this paper does not propose any modifications to the LegacyInputIterator or any class that depends on it. Specifically, we do not propose to change the requirements or wording of istream_iterator, ostream_iterator, istreambuf_iterator or ostreambuf_iterator. Furthermore, we do not propose modifications to algorithms in the namespace std. The new iterators we propose here are in fact mostly incompatible with existing algorithms. They are meant to be used in the ranges namespace and as basic building blocks of range-based views.

While the ability to use move-only iterators with the algorithms defined in the std namespace would certainly be welcomed, doing so would weaken the Cpp20InputIterator concept and leads to other issues (namely, std based algorithms require iterators to be EqualityComparable, which the Cpp20InputIterator does not require).

In practice, that means that types satisfying the LegacyInputIterator requirements continue to work unaffected with algorithms defined in the std namespace. They may not be compatible with algorithms defined in the ranges namespace, or with new code using non-movable types satisfying the InputIterator concept as proposed here.

Inversely, types satisfying the InputIterator concepts may not be compatible with algorithms in std as they may not be able to satisfy the LegacyInputIterator requirements if they are not copyable.

Because it hardly makes sense to copy an Input Iterator (more on that later), it would be possible to add support for move-only iterators to the std namespace without much change to the standard. However, because implementers may copy iterators within the implementation of the standard library, along with existing third-party libraries, a lot of code would need to be adapted. And there is little pressure to do so as existing iterators types cannot be changed.

Furthermore, while we propose to add support for movable non-forward iterators, the proposed design does not preclude, in any way, the existance of copyable non-forward iterators.

5. Motivation

5.1. Move-only state

It may be desirable for an iterator to hold a move-only object, becoming itself move-only, which is not possible with iterators modeling LegacyIterator. A real-world example of such iterator is described in [P0902R0]. While syntactically copyable in the current design, a coroutine_handle such as used by a generator input iterator ought to be move-only.

5.2. Implicitly destructive operations

Reading from an input sequence is a destructive operation. But that destruction is reflected nowhere in the API. Less experienced developers may not be aware of the destructive / single-pass nature of non-forward Iterators By making InputIterator move only, developers will have to explicitly move them, which both signals the invalidation of the move-from object, but, more importantly, that the underlying data will be destroyed.

6. What is a move-only iterator?

Unlike [P0902R0], we do not propose to introduce a new iterator category.

A move-only Iterator is a non-forward iterator (either input or output depending on whether is it writable). This means that a move-only iterator has almost the same semantic requirements as an InputIterator, and offers the same operations. In other words, everything that can be expressed and done with a Cpp20InputIterator can be equally expressed and done with a move-only/non-copyable InputIterator.

Therefore, this paper does not propose to introduce a new iterator category, new named-requirement, concept name or iterator tag.

Furthermore, there is no ForwardIterator that is only movable, as a ForwardIterator is by definition an iterator that can be copied. We will expand on this later.

7. A Holistic Approach to Iterators

While the first part of this paper focuses on making move-only iterators possible, as a means to get some code to compile, it is important to take a step back and to think about what movability means for Iterators, from first principles.

An iterator denotes a position into a sequence of elements (whether that sequence maps to memory or not is, for our purpose, irrelevant).

A most basic iterator can be incremented, which means it can move to the next position in the sequence. An iterator does not own the sequence iterated over (there are exceptions, ie: generators), which means the salient property of an iterator is its position in that sequence.

Iterators categories then represent the way an iterator can move along that sequence.

ContiguousIterator is an optimization of RandomAccessIterator specific to the C++ memory model that further, constrain the underlying sequence to be laid out contiguously in memory.

Stepanov theorized an additional category, "Index iterator", which has O(1) access but in a single direction.

Further work was made on iterator categories, notably the Boost.Iterator library focused on separating traversal (how the iterator moves along the sequence) from access (whether dereferencing an iterator allows the pointed element to be read, written or both). While a very interesting concept, it falls outside the scope of this paper. Just keep in mind that everything that applies to non-forward InputIterator usually applies to OutputIterator - which are always non-Forward, the standard lacking that symmetry between read access and write access.

However, focusing on traversal, the set of iterators categories is actually rather closed, there are only so many ways a sequence can be traversed. An important point of Stepanov design is that each category is a refinement of the preceding one. RandomAccessIterator is a BidirectionalIterator which in turn is a ForwardIterator. Every algorithm applicable to a ForwardIterator can be equally applied to a BidirectionalIterator, etc.

So, what separates InputIterator from ForwardIterator if they are both "forward" in that they can both traverse a sequence in one direction?

ForwardIterator is defined as being "multi-pass". Meaning it can traverse a sequence multiple times. That, in turn, implies ForwardIterator is copyable, because if a sequence can be traversed multiple times, it can also be traversed multiple times at the same time and therefore there can be multiple ForwardIterator pointing at different elements in the sequence. ForwardIterator is also always EqualityComparable. Two ForwardIterator compare equal if they point to the same elements in the sequence (remember, that in the general case, the position of an iterator in a sequence is its sole salient property). And so ForwardIterator, being both EqualityComparable and Copyable is Regular.

The standard defines the "multi pass" guarantee by stating:

a == b implies ++a == ++b
Given X is a pointer type or the expression (void)++X(a), a is equivalent to the expression a.

In other words: Two identical objects to which is applied the same transformation are identical. Copying a FordwardIterator copies the salient properties of that value and incrementing it does not modify the underlying sequence. So ForwardIterator is required to be a regular type behaving like a regular type.

Which bring us to InputIterator. InputIterator is a "single pass" iterator. The underlying sequence can on only be traversed once. The existence of an Iterator at the nth position in the sequence implies there can be no valid iterator at the position n-1 in that same sequence.

//Given an InputIterator a
auto b = a;
b; // is invalid.

However, remember that the sole salient property of an iterator is its distance to the start of the sequence. Incrementing an iterator only mutates that property (again, conceptually, independently of implementation). And the only operation that mutates that property is the increment operation (which Stepanov calls successor).

This implies that as a non-forward iterator moves from one element of the sequence to the next, that element is destroyed.

All of this is well known and is basically rephrasing "Input iterators are single pass".

An important point to make is that how an iterator can traverse a sequence is derived from the nature of the sequence rather than from the iterator itself. The point could be made that there is no such thing as an "Input iterator" Or a "Forward Iterator" because what we really mean is "Iterator over an Input Sequence" or "Iterator over a Forward Sequence".

This is saying that, to be able to reason properly about iterators and traversal, we must assume that the iterator type associated with a sequence is the most specialized possible for that sequence.

The problem is, of course, that we do not have, in the general case, a more meaningful way to express the traversability of a sequence than by defining what type of iterator is used to iterate over it.

It is then the responsibility of the developer providing the sequence to define the most appropriate -- the most specialized -- iterator category for that sequence.

In practice, because InputIterator and ForwardIterator are syntactically identical and because of the single-pass / multi-passes guarantees are poorly taught, it is common for iterators to be mis-categorized. Other iterator categories do not have these problems as each subsequent refining category adds syntax requirements: BidirectionalIiterator require decrement operators, RandomAccessIterator has further requirements. And while ContiguousIterator is currently not syntactically differentiated from RandomAccessIterator, it is possible to require that ContiguousIterator be convertible to a pointer of the type of the underlying sequence’s elements.

But then, is there a set of operations and semantic requirements, translating to actual C++ syntax, that could allow for InputIterator to be easily distinguished from each other? Can we avoid requiring a tag system? Is there a defining operation that distinguishes InputIterator from ForwardIterator in such a way that it would both not require an explicit category tagging while at the same time offering a better understanding of iterator categories as well as a less surprising and safer API for non-forward iterators?

In fact, there is. We established that ForwardIterators are semantically copyable, while InputIterators are not. So the requirement that promotes an InputIterator into a ForwardIterator is indeed copyability - which translate in C++ to a copy constructor. We can, therefore, consider that, in the absence of a tag, all non-copyable iterators are InputIterator, while all copyable iterators are ForwardIterator.

This model, however, deviates slightly from Stepanov’s work and LegacyInputIterator: Copying a LegacyInputIterator does not invalidate either copy. In fact, it is quite valid to deference multiple copies of a LegacyInputIterator.

Elements Of Programming has the notion of Regular types (and in Stepanov’s work all Iterators are regular), but also the notion of regular transformations (aka pure functions) - which, given the same input, always give the same output. Given a ForwardIterator fi, there is a successor function returning an incremented copy of fi such as sucessor(fi) == sucessor(fi). In C++, that regular sucessor function is ForwardIterator::operator++(int);, in that (it++) == (it++) for any given ForwardIterator.

For InputIterator, Stepanov specifies that the successor is a pseudo transformation or a non-regular transformation that look like a regular one. And therein lies the rub.

Like a pointer, InputIterator is Regular, up until the point a transformation of an instance affects all copies.

InputIterator i = /*...*/
*i    //ok
auto a = i //ok
*i    //ok
i++;  // a now invalid

This design accurately models the nature of iterators. Because an iterator represents a position in a sequence, it is natural that multiple iterators could point to the same position. After one copy is incremented, in Stepanov’s model, other copies are in a partially formed state and cannot be used (but they can be assigned to, or destroyed).

Let’s consider the case where we move from an iterator instead of copying it

InputIterator i = /*...*/
*i           //ok
auto a = move(i); //ok
*i;          //invalid
a++;         //ok
i++;         //invalid

Moving from an iterator invalidates it early, albeit artificially. As per standard, the moved-from iterator is in a valid, but unspecified state, and cannot be used (but can be assigned to, or destroyed). Notice the similarity between "a valid, but unspecified state" and "a partially formed state".

The difference is slim. Notably, both models are equally expressive. References can be used, should multiple names be necessary. In Stepanov’s model iterators are made invalid by the natural mutation of the sequence upon increment rather than by artificially preventing multiple copies.

The second model in which the iterator is moved from, the one we think should be the default way to handle non-forward iterators, is however a much better fit for the C++ model, and offers much stronger guarantees to both the human developer as well as static analysis tools.

In the "increment invalidates" model, objects are spiritually moved-from at a distance, which neither the theory of special relativity nor the C++ memory, model are equipped to handle. This makes it hard for tools to detect invalid uses - although it might become possible with better tools (See Herb Sutter’s CppCon2018 talk). But most concerning, there is no way for a developer to know that the iterators are entangled.

auto i = troubles.begin();
auto schrodingers_iterator = i;
auto nasal_demon = *schrodingers_iterator;

The code above might be perfectly fine. Indeed whether it is well defined or not depends on whether the iterator return by troubles.begin(); is forward or not. It is undecidable in these 4 lines of slide-code. It is not much more obvious in a complex program that may pass iterators to other functions or store them in containers, etc. There are, after all, no theoretical limits to the distance in time and space over which entanglement perdures.

Even worse, should the type of troubles.begin(); be changed from Forward to Input, the code would change from perfectly fine to UB, with no warning.

Moving non-forward iterators, therefore, better expresses intent, is safer and less surprising. Move-only non-forward Iterators also express the destructive nature of incrementation and give a better sense of the difference between InputIterator and ForwardIterator.

7.1. An Holistic Approach to Iterator Tags and Iterator Concepts

Missing the notion of movability pre-c++11 and lacking concepts, LegacyIterators are syntactically distinguished by tags. a LegacyInputIterator is one which has an input_iterator_tag tag, while a LegacyForwardIterator is one which has a forward_iterator_tag tag. This creates a sort of circular, self-referential definition. This has carried over to the 's Iterator concepts definitions. Iterators concepts then

Of course, it is not always possible to express all of a type’s semantic requirements through syntax, and in some cases, tags are an unfortunate necessity. However, they should be the mechanism of last recourse, and whenever possible, the semantic requirements should be reflected in the syntax. The idea is that hidden requirements not expressed as code lead to easier-to-misuse types, which inevitably translates to runtime bugs. Ultimately, requirements that can neither be checked at compile time (concepts) or runtime (contracts) are bound to be ignored. Rooted in the belief that not all birds quack like a duck, this proposal leverages meaningful syntactic requirements to increase the type safety of the iterator taxonomy.

In the case of iterators, all requirements of all iterators categories can be expressed syntactically:

template <class I> concept bool InputIterator =
    Readable<I> &&
    Iterator<I> ;

template <class I> concept bool ForwardIterator =
    InputIterator<I> &&
    Copyable<I> &&

template <class I> concept bool BidirectionalIterator =
    ForwardIterator<I> &&

template <class I> concept bool RandomAccessIterator =
    BidirectionalIterator<I> &&

template <class I> concept bool ContiguousIterator =
    RandomAccessIterator<I> &&
    ConvertibleTo<I, std::add_const_t<iter_value_t<I>>*>

This is of course simplified but shows that each iterator category subsumes the last and adds a single, cohesive set of requirement enforceable at compile-time. In this design, there is no risk of a type satisfying the wrong concept because of a poorly chosen tag.

7.1.1. Tags as an opt-in opt-out mechanism

Iterators concepts already support semantic-only checking of iterator requirements for types that do not define either iterator_category or iterator concept. Currently, this machinery will identify categories from ForwardIterator to RandomAccessIterator. With this proposal, non-copyable tagless types that otherwise meet the requirements of InputIterator be correctly identified as non-forward InputIterator, which is always the correct assumption. Copyable tagless iterators will remain categorized as ForwardIterator by that machinery.

8. Q/A

8.1. Non-regular iterators, really?

This proposal advocates for Non-Regular Iterators, and weakens WeaklyIncrementable requirements to that effect. Non-Regularity is best avoided, so this might feel like going backward.

However, non-regular types are easier to reason about than types that just pretend to be regular. Because InputIterator is meant to iterate over a non-regular sequence, it is not regular (whether we like it or not), and the best we can do is make sure the syntax matches the semantic. It would be accurate to say that InputIterator is locally regular, but this doesn’t help much in the context of the c++ memory model. This paper is in part motivated by the conviction that exposing a false sense of (Semi-)regularity is much more detrimental to code robustness than non-regularity.

8.2. What about Equality of Input Iterators?

A first, misguided, version of this paper attempted to prevent comparability of types meeting the InputIterator requirements. InputIterator should, in general, not be EqualityComparable, since they cannot be copied and a fundamental idea in Stepanov’s teachings is that copy and equality are two sides of the same coin.

However, preventing Equality requires dramatic changes to the design and the author was reminded that negative-requirements are in general a terrible idea.

Early feedback suggested a desire to be able to compare non-forward iterators. Consider the following:

auto a = stream.begin();
auto b = stream.begin();
if(a == b) {


This code will inevitably lead to suffering at some point. However, we cannot prevent people from constructing multiple non-forward iterators, and these iterators will compare equal until one of them invalidate the other.

Two non-forward iterators compare equal if-and-only-if they point to the same position of the same sequence (and only one such position can be referred to at any given time).

Allowing EqualityComparable on non-forward iterators also simplify the interoperability of std:: and ranges:: iterators. However, the author would like to recommend that all future non-forward iterators introduced in the standard be not EqualityComparable. Instead, non-forward iterator should compare to a Sentinel, which is a much better model. common_iterator can be used to ease migration and interoperability.

8.3. But... Moved-from objects are still objects!

Sure, moving-from leaves a trail of objects in an unspecified state. However, it is much more easy for tools and humans alike to understand that moved-from objects should not be used, and in fact, all majors compilers can warn about these patterns. We think that for the case at hand, focusing on the proper handling of values -- as opposed to objects —is a sufficient approximation to reduce the potential for iterators misuse while not weakening the stronger mathematical underpinning of the STL.

8.4. Does iterators default-constructability needs revisiting?

Default-constructability of iterator seems to have been added, removed and added back to the Ranges TS and the One Ranges Proposal several times. To the best of my knowledge, this was done for the sake of Semiregularity. Given that this proposal strikes semi-regularity, should this question be revisited?

The authors want to point out that default-constructed iterators are almost never in a specified state and are almost always unsafe to use. Moreover, DefaultConstructible is not a requirement of any algorithm using ranges and ultimately, we think enforcing DefaultConstructibility weakens the better Sentinel model introduced by ranges.

8.5. What about [P0902R0]?

Andrew Hunter’s "Move-only iterators" paper proposes a design to introduce Move-Only iterators in the taxonomy of LegacyIterator. However, this design does not offer a solution to use these move-only iterators with existing algorithms, limiting their usefulness. The iterators proposed by P0902 are additionally EqualityComparable. The advantage of that is that they are compatible with algorithms designed with C++17 downward. That’s, however, a potential source of bugs and confusion.

However, if LEWG feels strongly about a solution compatible with existing algorithms it would be possible to relax the requirements of concerned algorithms to accept move-only iterators. along with the introduction of a new move_iterator_tag trait.

Such algorithms would then be compatible with types satisfying InputIterator (as proposed by this paper) through a common_iterator adaptor.

If proven with enough confidence that requirements of existing algorithms in the std namespace can be relaxed to handle move-only iterator, the necessary modifications can be applied in a subsequent standard version.

So while there would definitively be value in supporting move-only iterators everywhere it makes sense, and the potential for breakage is relatively low, we do not propose it for lack of visibility on the consequences of such changes.

8.6. Why do you want to take my Copyable InputIterators away from me, I like them?!

We do not propose anything of the sort. But, we propose that

Non-copyable Iterator Copyable Iterator Copyable Iterator with a tag
struct It {
    It(It&&) = default;
    It(const It&) = delete;
struct It {
    It(const It&) = default;
struct It {
    It(const It&) = default;
    using iterator_concept = input_iterator_tag;
static_assert<InputIterator<It>>  == true;
static_assert<ForwardIterator<It>>  == false;
static_assert<InputIterator<It>>  == true;
static_assert<ForwardIterator<It>>  == true;
static_assert<InputIterator<It>>  == true;
static_assert<ForwardIterator<It>>  == false;

8.7. Will this break existing code ?!

We want to reiterate(!) that all the changes proposed in this paper are only applicable to concepts, types, and requirements that were added to the standard by the Ranges proposal. They do not, in any way, impact code depending on types, requirements or algorithms as defined by the C++17 standard

8.8. Won’t that implicit categorization lead to miss-categorization?

The only valid use cases for InputIterator are streams or other input devices, and iterators that own a non-copyable generator. Most views and iterators are Forward. It turns out that C++ types are Copyable by default, therefore, Iterators will be categorized as ForwardIterator by default, which is correct in most cases.

This proposal is also a teaching opportunity because the nature of InputIterator is often poorly understood and misconstrued. We suspect that these tweaks to the taxonomy of Iterator will make them easier to teach.

8.9. Post Increment on non-copyable iterators

Post-incrementing move-only iterators would obviously be incorrect. However, a satisfying solution was offered by [P0541R1].

9. Questions for LEWG

10. List of proposed changes

Because the ranges-related proposals are still in flux and will require merging multiple documents, we do not provide wording at this time. However, a number of concepts need to be modified in order to allow for iterators that are only movable. This is a departure from the current Standard Concepts Requirements - which itself is grounded in Stepanov work - in which all iterator categories are Regular - or Semi-Regular, which implies copyability.

Note that "ForwardIterator" is defined in terms of its copyability, and so it shall remain regular. The Copyability, and therefore Regularity of Iterator is therefore moved a few levels down from Iterator to ForwardIterator

10.1. Changes to <iterator>

10.1.1. WeaklyIncrementable

WeaklyIncrementable is a requirement of all Iterator, including Cpp20InputIterator. WeaklyIncrementable is defined to be semi-regular. Because WeaklyIncrementable, as it is described in [P0896R2], accommodates for Cpp20InputIterator and LegacyInputIterator, it suffers from the same issue (being copyable with move semantic). We propose to strike the Semiregular requirement as follow

template <class I>
concept WeaklyIncrementable =
    Movable<I> &&
    requires(I i) {
      typename iter_difference_t<I>;
      requires SignedIntegral<iter_difference_t<I>>;
      { ++i } -> Same<I>&; // not required to be equality-preserving
      i++; // not required to be equality-preserving

10.1.2. Iterator

Iterator is left unmodified as merely changing WeaklyIncrementable is enough to not requiring it to be regular.

10.1.3. InputIterator

The InputIterator iterator concept is left unchanged. It implicitly doesn’t need to meet the requirement of Semiegular any longer through WeaklyIncrementable.

Tagless move-only input iterators will also be correctly identified by the ITER_CONCEPT machinery without further changes.

10.1.4. OutputIterator

The OuputIterator iterator concept is left unchanged. It implicitly doesn’t need to meet the requirement of Semiegular any longer through WeaklyIncrementable.

10.1.5. ContiguousIterator

template <class I, class T>
concept ContiguousIterator =
   ContiguousIterator =
        RandomAccessIterator<I> &&
        std::is_lvalue_reference<iter_reference_t<I>>::value &&
        Same<iter_value_t<I>, __uncvref<iter_reference_t<I>>> &&
            DerivedFrom<ITER_CONCEPT(I), contiguous_iterator_tag> ||
            ConvertibleTo<I, std::add_const_t<iter_value_t<I>>*>

Requiring a conversion operator to iter_value_t<I>* (instead of a tag - It could also require a tag or a conversion operator) allows the whole iterator taxonomy to be semantically and accurately constrainable without the need for tags.

10.2. Changes to <ranges>


Unlike R0, this paper does not propose to remove the SemiRegular requirement from view. View over non-forward ranges should not hold or cache the result of calling begin()

10.2.2. Inserters

Because the OutputIterator concept as proposed here is not compatible with the LegacyOutputIterator requirements, it would not be possible to use std:: inserters with the ranges:: algorithms.

It is, therefore, necessary to provide suitable inserters modeling OutputIterator back_insert_iterator
namespace std::ranges {
template <class Container>
class back_insert_iterator : public std::back_insert_iterator<Container> {
    using std::back_insert_iterator<Container>::back_insert_iterator;
    back_insert_iterator(const back_insert_iterator & other) = delete;
    back_insert_iterator(back_insert_iterator && other)

template <class Container>
back_insert_iterator<Container> back_inserter(Container& x);
} front_insert_iterator
namespace std::ranges {
template <class Container>
class front_insert_iterator : public std::front_insert_iterator<Container> {
    using std::front_insert_iterator<Container>::front_insert_iterator;
    front_insert_iterator(const front_insert_iterator & other) = delete;
    front_insert_iterator(front_insert_iterator && other);
template <class Container>
front_insert_iterator<Container> front_inserter(Container& x);
} insert_iterator
namespace std::ranges {
template <class Container>
class insert_iterator : public std::insert_iterator<Container> {
    using std::insert_iterator<Container>::insert_iterator;
    insert_iterator(const insert_iterator & other) = delete;
    insert_iterator(insert_iterator && other);
template <class Container>
insert_iterator<Container> inserter(Container& x, typename Container::iterator i);

10.2.3. counted_iterator

10.2.4. move_iterator

10.3. Changes to <algorithm>

There should be no wording change to algorithms. However, implementers would have to never copy non-forward iterators within the implementation of C++20 ranges based and ranges:: algorithms.

11. Impact on other proposals

11.1. View proposals

We suggest that the various proposals introducing new non-forward views should have iterators that are neither copyable nor equally comparable. A candidate for such change would be [P1035R1]'s istream_view.

11.2. Iterator facade

[P0186R0] describes a system for an iterator facade. The changes proposed make defining iterators easier but we think there is still value in an iterator facade. To accommodate and honor the changes proposed here, we suggest that:

12. Implementation experience

We validated the design in cmstl2. However, cmcstl2 deviates from the Working Draft as it doesn’t have the same Deep Integration system and therefore lacks the ITER_CONCEPT machinery. Furthermore, we have not yet completed this work. Some algorithms, like count, proved to require specialization for InputIterator because of implementation specific details.

12.1. Acknowledgments

The authors like to thank Connor Waters, Tony Van Eerd, Eric Niebler, Casey Carter, Christopher Di Bella, Sean Parent and Arthur O’Dwyer who gave tremendously helpful feedbacks during the writing of this paper.


Informative References

Beman Dawes, Eric Niebler, Casey Carter. Iterator Facade Library Proposal for Ranges. 11 February 2016. URL: https://wg21.link/p0186r0
Eric Niebler. Ranges TS: Post-Increment on Input and Output Iterators. 10 July 2017. URL: https://wg21.link/p0541r1
Eric Niebler, Casey Carter, Christopher Di Bella. The One Ranges Proposal. 25 June 2018. URL: https://wg21.link/p0896r2
Andrew Hunter. Move-only iterators. 5 February 2018. URL: https://wg21.link/p0902r0
Christopher Di Bella. Input range adaptors. URL: https://wg21.link/p1035