Jens Maurer <Jens.Maurer@gmx.net>

Target audience: LWG

2017-11-23

This paper proposes to add simple free functions for operations related to integral powers of 2 on all unsigned integer types.

A previous proposal was in "N3864: A constexpr bitwise operations library for C++" by Matthew Fioravante.

The foundation for digital computers are binary digits (also called "bits"), and as such operating with a base-2 representation of data is often most natural or most efficient.

It is expected that the functions provided with this proposal will be,
at some later time, overloaded for `std::datapar`

, the
nascent SIMD data type (see P0214R3: "Data-Parallel Vector Types &
Operations" by Matthias Kretz).

- Provide wide-contract log2p1 instead of narrow-contract log2.
- Rename ceilpow2 to ceil2 and floorpow2 to floor2.

- Make ceil2 return an unspecified value for out-of-bounds arguments.
- Change to header <bit>

This proposal uses readable English names for the operations, using
the established abbreviations `pow`

and `ceil`

.

It is conceivable to add these functions to the
header `<cstdlib>`

(`abs`

and `div`

are already there), although a new header such as `<pow2>`

seems more
focused. The wording below adds a new header.

Per prevailing LWG convention, only those functions are marked
`noexcept`

that have a wide constract, i.e. no restrictions
on the values of the function arguments.

All functions are mathematically pure, i.e. do not access or modify
data other than the argument values, and thus are
marked `constexpr`

.

`<bit>`

to the table in 17.5.1.2 [headers].
Append a new subsection to clause 29 [numerics] with the following content:

## 29.10 Integral powers of 2 [numerics.pow.two]

## 29.10.1 Header

`<bit>`

synopsis [bit.syn]namespace std { template <class T> constexpr bool ispow2(T x) noexcept; template <class T> constexpr T ceil2(T x)noexcept; template <class T> constexpr T floor2(T x) noexcept; template <class T> constexpr T log2p1(T x) noexcept; }## 29.10.1 Operations [numerics.pow.two.ops]

template <class T> constexpr bool ispow2(T x) noexcept;Returns:`true`

if x is a power of two.

Remarks:Participates in overload resolution only if T is an unsigned integer type (3.9.1 [basic.fundamental]).template <class T> constexpr T ceil2(T x)noexcept;Returns:The minimal value`y`

such that`ispow2(y)`

is`true`

and`y >= x`

; if`y`

is not representable as a value of type T, the result is an unspecified value.

Remarks:Participates in overload resolution only if T is an unsigned integer type (3.9.1 [basic.fundamental]).template <class T> constexpr T floor2(T x) noexcept;Returns:If`x == 0`

, 0; otherwise the maximal value`y`

such that`ispow2(y)`

is`true`

and`y <= x`

.

Remarks:Participates in overload resolution only if T is an unsigned integer type (3.9.1 [basic.fundamental]).template <class T> constexpr T log2p1(T x) noexcept;Returns:If`x == 0`

, 0; otherwise one plus the base-2 logarithm of x, with any fractional part discarded.

Remarks:Participates in overload resolution only if T is an unsigned integer type (3.9.1 [basic.fundamental]).

- ISO/IEC JTC1 SC22 WG21 N3864: "A constexpr bitwise operations library for C++" by Matthew Fioravante
- ISO/IEC JTC1 SC22 WG21 P0214R3: "Data-Parallel Vector Types & Operations" by Matthias Kretz
- ARM Compiler User Guide [large PDF]
- Intel x86 Instruction Set Reference [large PDF]
- PowerPC Architecture Book, Version 2.02: Book I: PowerPC User Instruction Set Architecture [large PDF inside ZIP]