Document number: LEWG, SG14, SG6: P0381R1
Date: 2016-10-17
Reply-to: John McFarlane, mcfarlane.john+fixed-point@gmail.com
Reply-to: Michael Wong, fraggamuffin@gmail.com
Audience: SG6, SG14, LEWG
This paper proposes a number of template definitions
for manipulating the width of numeric types.
It's primary aim is to make it easier to widen numeric types
in the case that arithmetic operations would otherwise cause overflow.
It's specific application is the fixed_point<>
class template
detailed in P0037R3.
The following definitions are proposed for addition to header, <cstdint>:
width<>
and set_width<>
;set_width_t<>
andwidth_v<>
.Fixed width integer types provide width-specific aliases to built-in integer types. However, they do not provide a generic way to specify a type from a given width value. Boost.Integer, on the other hand, provides this functionality through Integer Type Selection.
Both sets of definitions have variants that allow the user to choose between the fastest and most compact alternatives. However, resultant types are confined to built-in integers; there is no way to specify user-defined types.
In contrast, this proposal aims specifically
to facilitate generic widening of integer types -
including user-defined types.
Most of the functionality was present in
revision 1
of fixed-point arithmetic proposal, P0037, as the resize<>
class template.
A current implementation can be found in the
reference implementation
of P0037.
Results of arithmetic operations - such as addition and multiplication - have greater range than their operands. This means that overflow errors are possible in common situations. For instance:
When the result is stored in a type that is the same as the operands:
// range of a*b is UCHAR_MAX*UCHAR_MAX but range of return value is UCHAR_MAX
uint8_t multiply(uint8_t a, uint8_t b) {
return a*b;
}
When the result is stored in an automatically deduced type but the range is too great:
// range of a*b is UINT_MAX*UINT_MAX but range of return value is UINT_MAX
auto multiply(unsigned a, unsigned b) {
return a * b;
}
It is left up to the user to ensure that capacity meets demand:
auto multiply(uint32_t a, uint32_t b) {
using result_type = uint64_t;
return result_type{a} * result_type{b};
}
Currently, the standard does not support a generic implementation of the above:
template<class Operand>
auto multiply(Operand a, Operand b) {
using result_type = ???;
return result_type{a} * result_type{b};
}
Boost.Integer provides a generic API which works for built-in integers of a known signedness:
template<class Operand>
auto multiply(Operand a, Operand b)
{
constexpr auto operand_width = sizeof(Operand)*CHAR_BIT*2;
using result_type = typename boost::uint_t<operand_width>::fast;
return result_type{a}*result_type{b};
}
A more broadly-applicable solution
should take the type of Operand
into account
and not just its capacity.
One benefactor of such a generic solution is
class template, fixed_point<>
, from
P0037R3:
template<class Rep, int Exponent>
class fixed_point;
The default type for Rep
is int
.
This means that fixed_point<int>
uses int
as its underlying storage.
However, any suitably integer-like type can be specified for Rep
.
There are certain situations
where use of fixed_point<>
requires generic widening of type.
These mostly relate to arithmetic operations.
For instance, the binary multiply operator widens the intermediate type
in order to store the extra digits involved.
A more advanced application of fixed_point<>
is to produce auto-widening types -
such as those introduced by Lawrence Crowl in
P0106.
Such types have operators which return results of larger types than their operands,
effectively eliminating overflow in many cases.
The proposed library additions are intended to manipulate the width of integer types at compile time.
The width of a given type can be determined
using definitions, width<>
and width_v<>
template<class T>
struct width;
template<class T>
constexpr unsigned width_v = width<T>::value;
such that the following assertions always hold:
static_assert(width<uint16_t>::value == 16, "the width of uint16_t is exactly 16 bits");
static_assert(width<long long>::value >= 64, "long long has a width of at least 64 bits");
static_assert(width<long>::value >= width<short>::value, "short is not longer than long");
static_assert(width<wchar_t>::value >= width<char>::value, "a wide character is at least as wide as a character");
Definitions, set_width<>
and set_width_t<>
, take an input type and a width in bits
and yield an equivalent type which has at least that many bits.
template<class Archetype, unsigned MinNumBits>
struct set_width;
template<class Archetype, unsigned MinNumBits>
using set_width_t = typename set_width<Archetype, MinNumBits>::type;
They are similar in usage to make_signed
/make_signed_t
and make_unsigned
/make_unsigned_t
which also take one type and produce another (possibly different) type.
The following assertions either fail to compile or hold true:
static_assert(is_same<set_width_t<signed, 8>, int8_t>::value, "int8_t is a signed 8-bit integer");
static_assert(is_same<set_width_t<unsigned, 32>, uint32_t>::value, "uint32_t is an unsigned 32-bit integer");
static_assert(is_same<set_width_t<uint64_t, 16>, uint16_t>::value, "a 64-bit unsigned integer was narrowed to 16-bits");
static_assert(is_same<set_width_t<char, 64>, int64_t>::value || is_same<set_width_t<char, 64>, uint64_t>::value, "char may or may not be signed so the result may be uint64_t or int64_t");
static_assert(width<set_width_t<int, 10>>::value >= 10, "result must be at least 10 bits wide");
A family is a set of types which differ in width alone. The set of signed built-in integers is one family. The set of unsigned built-in integers is another. No type can belong to more than one family.
The Archetype
parameter of set_width
identifies a family by any one of its members.
The result of set_width
is defined as
the most narrow family member with at least MinNumBits
of width.
If width_v<T>
equals N
,
then set_width_t<T, N>
is guaranteed to be T
.
Specializations of width
and set_width
are provided for built-in types.
However, custom types may be specialized by the user.
namespace std {
template<class T>
struct width;
template<class Archetype, unsigned MinNumBits>
struct set_width;
template<class T>
constexpr unsigned width_v = width<T>::value;
template<class Archetype, unsigned MinNumBits>
using set_width_t = typename set_width<Archetype, MinNumBits>::type;
}
The name set_width_t
is almost certainly the wrong choice.
The use of the word 'set' makes it sound like a run-time operation.
Possible alternatives include:
make_width_t
of_width_t
make_integer_t
make_int_t
int_t
make_bitwidth_t
The order of the two template parameters for set_width
and set_width_t
is by no means cast in stone.
It may be that defaulting Archetype
to int
is a good idea
in which case, swapping the order would certainly be on the cards.
Fast and least variants to set_width
and set_width_t
would probably make valuable additions.
The choice of unsigned
as the type used to express width is by no means final.
Possible alternatives include size_t
and int
but
unsigned
happens to have worked best in practice thus far.
The possibility of specializing for the floating-point family
has not been ruled out.
It is not clear what width means in the context of floating-point types.
Possibly it means the mantissa or the entire content of a type,
in which case width_v<float>
is either 24 or 32.
Some compilers define a non-standard 128-bit integer type.
Types of this width may enter the standard in the future.
For this reason, it is left unspecified whether
these types join in the families of built-in integers.
Whether a library implementation chooses for set_width_t<signed, 128>
to cause a compiler error or yield __int128
on supported compilers
is a matter for consideration.
Special thanks to Brent Friedman, Marco Foco, Arthur O'Dwyer and Michael Wong for their valuable input.
This paper revises P0381R0:
width
, set_width
etc. are moved from <type_traits> to <cstdint>;