Document number: |
N3965 |

Date: |
2014-02-28 |

Revises: |
N3542 |

Project: |
Programming Language C++ |

Reference: |
ISO/IEC IS 14882:2011(E) |

Reply to: |
Pete Becker |

Roundhouse Consulting, Ltd. | |

pete@versatilecoding.com |

The discussion in Bristol resulted in several suggested changes. I have incorporated
those comments as new issues in Open issues; they’re
marked *[new in N3965]*.

- added member functions
`integer::mod`

,`integer::mulmod`

, and`integer::powmod`

; added free functions`mod`

,`mulmod`

,`powmod`

,`gcd`

, and`lcm`

for objects of type`integer`

; - added language to allow implementations to use expression templates;
- added
`noexcept`

qualifiers to all appropriate functions; in particular, all constructors that take integral types are marked`noexcept`

, which implies that implementations must implement a small-object optimization for integral types. - removed
`bits::highest_bit`

and`bits::lowest_bit`

; the first is too hard to specify in a meaningful way for an unbounded set, and the second seems vestigial without the first. - replaced all mentions of
`size_type`

with`size_t`

.

Programmers sometimes need to manipulate integer values that are too large to repesent with C++’s standard integer types. Doing a Google search for terms that describe large integers produces many hits for libraries that handle large integers. These libraries vary in quality, from hacks by beginners to sophisticated, professional implementations. Also, Java has unbounded precision integers as part of its standard class library.

One important use for unbounded-precision integers is cryptography. Cryptographic applications typically manipulate integer values of several hundred digits. If the C++ standard library provides facilities for such values it will make cryptographic applications easier to write and to port.

There have been two Committee papers proposing unbounded-precision integer libraries for C++: N1718 (2004) and N2143 (2007), both by M.J. Kronenburg. Nothing was done with these papers, in part because there was too much else going on in the Library Working Group at the time. Now that the Committee is looking to greatly expand the scope of the standard library, it’s time to reconsider unbounded-precision integers.

An *unbounded-precision integer type* is an integer type that does not
impose pre-defined limits on the precision of the values that it can represent.
Of course, in practice, unbounded precision can’t be achieved; sooner or
later the system runs out of resources. So *unbounded* in this context
means bounded only by the availability of system resources; there is no
hard-coded limit to the number of digits in the value that an
unbounded-precision integer type an represent.

Unbounded-precision integer types should *interoperate* with C++’s
built-in integer types. Applying arithmetic operations to a mix of standard
integer types and unbounded-precision integer types should just work. And to the
extent possible, operations that can be applied to standard integer types should
also be applicable, using the same syntax, to unbounded-precision integer
types.

Unbounded-precision integer types should also provide operations that facilitate their use in areas that demand such types. Since there is a potentially unbounded list of operations that could be useful in applications that need unbounded-precision integer types, it is not practical to provide every useful operation. This proposal presents a small set of required operations and provides a facility for users to write their own extensions.

This paper proposes two unbounded-precision integer types.
The type
`integer`

represents signed integer values.
The type
`bits`

represents an unbounded set of bit values.

To support interoperability, objects of either type can be constructed from values of any of the standard integer types. So code like this just works:

integer i = 30000;
integer j = 1000 * i;
bits b = 0xFF;
bits c = b & 0xAA;

Converting a negative number to an object of type
`bits`

sets the number to the complement of
this initializer, so this code just works:

bits b = -3; // sets `b`

to ...11111100

This is easily implemented by storing a finite set of 1 bits (in this case, `0x03`

) and using a flag
to indicate whether the actual value is represented by that set of bits or by
its complement.

As currently specified, neither `integer`

nor
`bits`

provides overloaded operators that take standard integer
types. When an operation is applied to a standard integer type and an
`integer`

object or a `bits`

object, the standard integer
operand is converted to the appropriate unbounded-precision integer type and the
operation is applied to the result. It is assumed that implementations will make
this kind of mixed operation efficient by implementing a small-integer
optimization, storing small values directly in the `integer`

or `bits`

object, and using heap storage when needed for larger
values. This greatly simplifies the interface specification.

Objects of these types can be constructed from string representations (with the usual range of possible bases) and from an initializer list that holds unsigned 32-bit values.

Objects of type `integer`

can also be constructed from values of floating-point
types.

Values of type `integer`

and of type `bits`

can be
freely inter-converted.

Bit manipulations on `bits`

objects treat the value as
having an unbounded number of bits above the highest bit stored in the
object. As a result, the usual bit operations, &, |, and ^, can be applied to
values of different sizes. Further, `std::seminumeric::bits`

can be used as
a replacement for `std::bitset`

when limiting the object
to a fixed number of bits is undesirable.

**1.****Allocators**-- unbounded-precision integer types need to manage memory on the free store to hold their data. This suggests that users should be able to specify an allocator. But templatizing these types on an allocator would require that all of the arithmetic operations provide overloads for all of the standard integer types, because function template instantiation requires exact type matches, without conversions.**5.***[new in N3417]***Rvalue overloads for arithmetic operations**(Joe Gottman) -- many of the operations on the unbounded-precision types can be made more efficient by providing overloaded versions that take rvalue references. For example:`integer operator+(integer&& lhs, const integer& rhs) { return std::move(lsh += rhs); }`

**7.***[new in N3417]***Support user-defined literals**(Alisdair Meredith, Marc Glisse) -- obviously useful, but users might expect them to be`constexpr`

, which they cannot, in general, be, because they need to allocate memory.**9.***[new in N3417]***Add**(Alisdair Meredith) -- although most functions can allocate memory, there are a few that could be marked`constexpr`

specifications as appropriate`constexpr`

. It’s not clear how useful this would be.**12.***[new in N3417]***Converting to a string could use a mechanism for providing an allocator**(Alisdair Meredith) -- for example,`template<class charT, class Traits, class Alloc> void bits::load(basic_string<charT, Traits, Alloc>&);`

**14.***[new in N3417]*(Jack Lloyd) -- this is important for cryptographic purposes, to avoid side-channel attacks.`powmod`

should be specified to run in constant time with identical cache access patterns for arguments of the same size**15.***[new in N3417]***Need functions to interconvert with byte arrays**(Jack Lloyd) -- quite a common need in cryptographic operations.**18.***[new in N3417]***Rounding of divisions and right shifts needs to be specified.**(Marc Glisse) -- even if it’s obvious. Also, does`mod`

return negative values?**24.***[new in N3965]***Provide interoperability with fixed point.****25.***[new in N3965]***What happens when**`integer_data_proxy::operator[]`

is called with an index that is out of bounds?

**4.***[resolved in N3965]***Policy for lossy conversions**-- converting an object of type`bits`

or`integer`

to an integral type that cannot represent its value doesn’t have any specified semantics in this paper. Should this throw an exception?*Resolution:*conversions of values that cannot be represented in the target type throw an exception of type`std::range_error`

.**6.***[resolved in N3965]**[new in N3417]***Functions for controlling when and how allocations occur**(Joe Gottman) -- just as with`std::string`

, many operations can be made faster by pre-allocating enough memory to hold the expected result. In some cases the desired capacity is best expressed in bits and in some cases in decimal digits, so the suggestion is to offer both.*Resolution:*`integer`

capacities are expressed in decimal digits (but`integer_data_proxy`

capacity is in number of internal data elements; does this make sense?);`bits`

capacities are expressed in number of bits.`size_t capacity_in_bits() const; // The number of bits the object can hold without reallocation. size_t capacity_in_digits() const; // The largest number n such that the object can hold n decimal // digits without reallocation. void reserve_bits(size_t n); // Postcondition: capacity_in_bits() >= n. void reserve_digits(size_t n); // Postcondition: capacity_in_digits() >= n. void shrink_to_fit()(); // A non-binding request to reduce memory usage.`

**8.***[resolved in N3965]**[new in N3417]***Add**(Alisdair Meredith) -- there are several that are obvious. In addition, if we require the small-object optimization, some or all of the constructors that take integral types can be`noexcept`

specifications as appropriate`noexcept`

.*Resolution:*added`noexcept`

; constructors that take integral types are marked`noexcept`

, implying a small-object optimization.**10.***[resolved in N3965]**[new in N3417]***Why do the bitshift operators take an**(Alisdair Meredith, Marc Glisse) -- this may be limiting, for example, on a 64-bit OS with a 32-bit`int`

argument?`int`

type.`size_t`

or`ptrdiff_t`

may be a better choice.*Resolution:*shift operators take an argument of type`size_t`

.**22.***[resolved in N3965]**[new in N3965]***Restore**`mod`

,`mulmod`

,`powmod`

,`gcd`

,`lcm`

.*Resolution:*done.**23.***[resolved in N3965]**[new in N3965]***Ensure that requirements do not preclude implementation with expression templates.***Resolution:*done, as suggested in the Bristol minutes, except that the second sentence is not included: the class`integer`

in not a template.

**2.***[resolved in N3542]***Policy for out-of-bounds subtraction**-- subtracting an`unsigned_integer`

value from a smaller value doesn’t have any specified semantics in this paper. This should probably throw an exception.*Resolution:*removed`unsigned_integer`

. The replacement type`bits`

does not provide arithmetic operations.**3.***[resolved in N3542]***Policy for out-of-bounds constructor arguments**-- constructing a`bits`

object from a negative value doesn’t have any specified semantics in this paper. This should probably throw an exception.*Resolution:*negative values produce complemented bit sets.**11.***[resolved in N3542]**[new in N3417]***Why just one string type for string conversions?**(Alisdair Meredith) -- there are four standard`basic_string`

typedefs.*Resolution:*string operations are now fully templated.**13.***[resolved in N3542]**[new in N3417]***Consider extending interface to more fully support dynamic bitsets**(Alisdair Meredith) -- or maybe that should be a separate class, with shared implementation.*Resolution*: changed`unsigned_integer`

to`bits`

with same interface as`std::bitset`

.**16.***[resolved in N3542]**[new in N3417]***Add a typedef that gives the underlying representation type and an accessor that provides a pointer to the internal representation.**(Jack Lloyd) -- some common cryptographic algorithms can’t be implemented with the interface in the proposal; adding these accessors makes it possible to implement them.*Resolution:*added class`integer_data_proxy`

.**17.***[resolved in N3542]**[new in N3417]***Is the**(Marc Glisse) -- if this is there to support bit manipulation, why not just specify those operations as undefined for negative numbers.`unsigned_integer`

type necessary?*Resolution:*removed`unsigned_integer`

and added`bits`

, whose sole purpose is bit manipulation.**19.***[resolved in N3542]**[new in N3417]***The constructor that takes a**(Marc Glisse)`string`

should be explicit.*Resolution:*done.**20.***[resolved in N3542]**[new in N3417]***Consider making**(Daniel Krügler) -- this would be a good match with the existing`to_string()`

a non-member function.`to_string`

functions.*Resolution:*done for`integer`

;`bits`

has it as a member to match`std::bitset`

.**21.***[resolved in N3542]**[new in N3417]***Consider removing**(Daniel Krügler, Jens Maurer) --`explicit operator std::string() const`

.`to_string()`

is sufficient.*Resolution:*done.

`<seminumeric>`

synopsis```
namespace std {
namespace experimental {
namespace seminumeric {
/* class integer */
class integer;
class integer_data_proxy;
void swap(integer& lhs, integer& rhs) noexcept;
// comparisons
bool operator==(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;
bool operator!=(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;
bool operator<(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;
bool operator<=(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;
bool operator>(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;
bool operator>=(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;
// arithmetic operations
integer operator+(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer operator-(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer operator*(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer operator/(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer operator%(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
std::pair<integer, integer> div(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer abs(const integer& val);
integer operator<<(const integer& lhs, size_t rhs);
integer operator>>(const integer& lhs, size_t rhs);
// numeric operations
integer sqr(const integer& val);
integer sqrt(const integer& val);
integer pow(const integer& val, const integer& exp);
integer mod(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer mulmod(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs, const integer& m);
integer powmod(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs, const integer& m);
integer gcd(const integer& a, const integer& b);
integer lcm(const integer& a, const integer& b);
// conversions
std::string to_string(const integer& val, int radix = 10);
// I/O operations
template <class CharT, class Traits>
std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& operator<<(
std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& str, const integer& val);
template <class CharT, class Traits>
std::basic_istream<CharT, Traits>& operator>>(
std::basic_istream<CharT, Traits>& str, integer& val);
/* class bits */
class bits;
void swap(bits& lhs, bits& rhs) noexcept;
// logical operations
bits operator&(const bits& lhs, const bits& rhs);
bits operator|(const bits& lhs, const bits& rhs);
bits operator^(const bits& lhs, const bits& rhs);
// I/O operations
template <class CharT, class Traits>
std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& operator<<(
std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& str, const bits& val);
template <class CharT, class Traits>
std::basic_istream<CharT, Traits>& operator>>(
std::basic_istream<CharT, Traits>& str, bits& val);
} /* namespace seminumeric */
} /* namespace experimental */
template <class Ty> class
```**numeric_limits**<Ty>;
template <> class **numeric_limits<experimental::seminumeric::integer>**;
template <class Ty> class **hash**<Ty>;
template <> class **hash<experimental::seminumeric::integer>**;
template <> class **hash<experimental::seminumeric::bits>**;
} /* namespace std */

`integer`

`class `**integer** {
public:
// constructors
integer() noexcept;
integer(char val) noexcept;
integer(signed char val) noexcept;
integer(unsigned char val) noexcept;
integer(short val) noexcept;
integer(unsigned short val) noexcept;
integer(int val) noexcept;
integer(unsigned val) noexcept;
integer(long val) noexcept;
integer(unsigned long val) noexcept;
integer(long long val) noexcept;
integer(unsigned long long val) noexcept;
integer(float val);
integer(double val);
integer(long double val);
integer(std::initializer_list<uint_least32_t> init);
template <class CharT, class Traits, class Alloc>
explicit integer(const std::basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>& str);
explicit integer(const bits& rhs);
explicit integer(bits&& rhs);
integer(const integer& rhs);
integer(integer&& rhs) noexcept;
// assign and swap
integer& operator=(const integer& rhs);
integer& operator=(integer&& rhs);
integer& operator=(const bits& rhs);
integer& operator=(bits&& rhs);
void swap(integer& rhs);
// conversions
explicit operator long long() const;
explicit operator unsigned long long() const;
explicit operator long double() const noexcept;
explicit operator bool() const noexcept;
// comparisons
int compare(const integer& rhs) const noexcept;
// arithmetic operations
integer& operator+=(const integer& rhs);
integer& operator-=(const integer& rhs);
integer& operator*=(const integer& rhs);
integer& operator/=(const integer& rhs);
integer& operator%=(const integer& rhs);
integer& operator++();
integer operator++(int);
integer& operator--();
integer operator--(int);
integer div(const integer& rhs);
integer& abs() noexcept;
integer& negate() noexcept;
integer operator+() const;
integer operator-() const;
integer& operator<<=(size_t rhs);
integer& operator>>=(size_t rhs);
// numeric operations
integer& sqr();
integer& sqrt();
integer& pow(const integer& exp);
integer& mod(const integer& rhs);
integer& mulmod(const integer& rhs, const integer& m);
integer& powmod(const integer& exp, const integer& m);
// observers
bool is_odd() const noexcept;
// accessors
integer_data_proxy get_data_proxy();
// capacity
size_t size() const noexcept;
size_t capacity() const noexcept;
void reserve(size_t digits);
void shrink_to_fit();
};

The class describes an object that manages an unbounded-precision signed integral type
that can be used in most contexts where an `int`

could be used.

Any function specified to return an object of type `integer`

may return an object of
another type, provided all the const member functions of the class `integer`

are
also applicable to that type.

integer **abs**(const integer& other);
integer& **integer::abs**() noexcept;

The first function returns an object that holds the absolute value of
`other`

. The second function sets the stored value of
`*this`

to its absolute value and returns
`*this`

.

size_t **integer::capacity**() const noexcept;

The member function returns the number of decimal digits that the object can represent without reallocating its internal storage.

int **integer::compare**(const integer& rhs) const noexcept;

The member function returns a value less than 0 if `*this`

is less than
`rhs`

, 0 if `*this`

is equal to `rhs`

, and greater than 0
if `*this`

is greater than `rhs`

.

std::pair<integer, integer> **div**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
std::pair<integer, integer> **integer::div**(const integer& rhs) const;

The functions return an object that is an instantiation of
`std::pair`

; its `first`

field holds the quotient,
`lhs / rhs`

or `*this / rhs`

, and its
`second`

field holds the remainder, `lhs % rhs`

or
`*this % rhs`

.

integer **gcd**(const integer& a, const integer& b);

The function return returns an object whose value is the greatest common
denominator of `a`

and `b`

.

integer_data_proxy **integer::get_data_proxy**();

The member function returns an object of type
integer_data_proxy
that can be used to examine and modify the internal storage of
`*this`

. If an object of type `integer_data_proxy`

that refers
to `*this`

exists at the time of a call to this function, the function
throws an exception object of type `std::runtime_error`

.

**integer::integer**() noexcept;
**integer::integer**(char val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(signed char val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(unsigned char val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(short val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(unsigned short val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(int val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(unsigned int val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(long val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(unsigned long val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(long long val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(unsigned long long val) noexcept;
**integer::integer**(float val);
**integer::integer**(double val);
**integer::integer**(long double val);
**integer::integer**(std::initializer_list<*unspecified*> list);
template<class CharT, class Traits, class Alloc>
explicit **integer::integer**(const std::basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>& str);
**integer::integer**(const bits& other);
**integer::integer**(bits&& other);
**integer::integer**(const integer& other);
**integer::integer**(integer&& other) noexcept;

The default constructor constructs an object whose value is
`0`

.

The constructors that take integral arguments construct objects whose value
is `val`

.

The constructors that take floating-point arguments construct objects whose
value is the value of `val`

with any fractional part discarded.

The constructor that takes a `string`

constructs an object whose
value is the value represented by the string object. The string object shall
have the form required for the string argument to the function
`std::strtol`

with a radix of `base`

, and shall be
interpreted as if by `std::strtol(str.c_str(), 0, base)`

, except that
the resulting value can never be outside the range of representable values.

The constructor that takes an `initializer_list`

constructs an object whose
stored value is equal to the elements of the `initializer_list`

treated as a
series of unsigned 32-bit digits with the leftmost digit being most significant.
For example, the initializer list `{ 0xFE, 0xF0, 0xAA, 0x31 }`

represents the value `0xFE * 32`

.^{3} + 0xF0 * 32^{2} + 0xAA
* 32^{1} + 0x31 * 32^{0}

The constructors that take an argument of type `bits`

each
construct an object whose stored value is the value in the bit pattern in
`other`

interpreted as a ones-complement representation of an integer value.

The copy and move constructors construct objects with the same value as
`other`

. The move constructor
leaves `other`

in an unspecified valid state.

bool **integer::is_odd**() const noexcept;

The member function returns `true`

only if the stored value
represents an odd number.

integer **lcm**(const integer& a, const integer& b);

The function returns an object whose value is the least common multiple of
`a`

and `b`

.

integer **mod**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer& **integer::mod**(const integer& rhs);

The non-member function returns an object whose value is ```
lhs mod
rhs
```

. The member function sets the stored value in `*this`

to
`*this mod rhs`

and returns `*this`

.

integer **mulmod**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs, const integer& m);
integer& **integer::mulmod**(const integer& rhs, const integer& m);

The non-member function returns an object whose value is
`(lhs * rhs) mod m`

. The member function sets the value of
`*this`

to `(*this * rhs) mod m`

and returns
`*this`

.

integer& **integer::negate**() noexcept;

The member function sets the stored value of `*this`

to the
negation of its previous vaue and returns `*this`

.

integer& **integer::operator=**(const integer& rhs);
integer& **integer::operator=**(integer&& rhs);
integer& **integer::operator=**(const bits& rhs);
integer& **integer::operator=**(bits&& rhs);

The first two operators store the value of `rhs`

into
`*this`

. The last two operators store the value of `rhs`

,
interpreted as a ones-complement representation of an integer value, into
`*this`

. The operators all return `*this`

.

integer **operator+**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);
integer **integer::operator+**() const;

The first operator returns an object whose value is the sum of the values of
`lhs`

and `rhs`

. The second operator returns a copy of
`*this`

.

integer& **integer::operator+=**(const integer& rhs);

The member operator sets the stored value of `*this`

to the sum of
the values of `*this`

and `rhs`

and returns a reference
to `*this`

.

integer& **integer::operator++**();
integer **integer::operator++**(int);

The member operators set the value stored in `*this`

to
`*this + 1`

. The first operator returns `*this`

. The
second operator returns an object whose value is the value stored in
`*this`

prior to the increment.

integer **operator-**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs)
integer **integer::operator-**();

The first operator returns an object whose value is the difference between the
values of `lhs`

and `rhs`

. The second operator returns
an object whose value is the negation of the value of `*this`

.

integer& **integer::operator-=**(const integer&);

The member operator sets the stored value of `*this`

to the
difference between the values of `*this`

and `rhs`

and
returns `*this`

.

integer& **integer::operator--**();
integer **integer::operator--**(int);

The member operators set the value stored in `*this`

to
`*this - 1`

. The first operator returns `*this`

. The
second operator returns an object whose value is the value stored in
`*this`

prior to the decrement.

integer **operator***(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);

The operator returns an object whose value is the product of the values of
`lhs`

and `rhs`

.

integer& **integer::operator*=**(const integer& rhs);

The member operator sets the stored value of `*this`

to the
product of the values of `*this`

and `rhs`

and returns a
reference to `*this`

.

integer **operator/**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs);

The operator returns an object whose value is the quotient of the value of
`lhs`

divided by the value of `rhs`

, discarding any
fractional part.

integer& **integer::operator/=**(const integer& rhs);

The member operator sets the stored value of `*this`

to the
quotient of the value of `*this`

divided by the value of
`rhs`

, discarding any fractional part, and returns
`*this`

.

integer **operator%**(const integer&, const integer&);

The operator returns an object whose value is the remainder of the value of
`lhs`

divided by the value of `rhs`

. The remainder is
the value such that `(lhs / rhs) * rhs + lhs % rhs`

is equal
to `lhs`

.

integer& **integer::operator%=**(const integer&);

The member operator sets the stored value of `*this`

to the
remainder of `*this`

divided by the value of `rhs`

and
returns `*this`

.

integer **operator>>**(const integer& val, size_t rhs);

The operator returns an object whose value is
`val / 2`

.^{rhs}

integer& **integer::operator>>=(size_t rhs);**

The operator
sets the value of `*this`

to `*this / 2`

.
The operator returns ^{rhs}`*this`

.

template <class Elem, class Traits>
std::basic_istream<Elem, Traits>& **operator>>**(std::basic_istream<Elem, Traits>& strm, integer& val);

The operator has the effect of ```
{ std::string temp; strm >>
temp; val = integer(temp); }
```

. It returns `strm`

.

integer **operator<<**(const integer& val, size_t rhs);

The operator returns an
object whose value is `val * 2`

.^{rhs}

integer& **integer::operator<<=**(size_t rhs);

The operator sets the value
of `*this`

to `*this * 2`

. The operator
returns ^{rhs}`*this`

.

template <class Elem, class Traits>
std::basic_ostream<Elem, Traits>& **operator<<**(std::basic_ostream<Elem, Traits>& strm, const integer& val);

The operator has the effect of `strm << to_string(val)`

.
It returns `strm`

.

explicit **integer::operator bool**() const noexcept;

The operator returns `false`

only if `*this`

is equal to
`0`

.

explicit **integer::operator long double**() const noexcept;

The operator returns a value equal to the stored value of
`*this`

. If the stored value is outside the range that can be
represented by an object of type `long double`

the returned value
is positive or negative infinity, as appropriate.

explicit **integer::operator long long**() const;

The operator returns a value equal to the stored value of
`*this`

.
If the stored value cannot be represented as a `long long`

it throws an exception of type `range_error`

.

explicit **integer::operator unsigned long long**() const;

The operator returns a value equal to the stored value of
`*this`

.
If the stored value cannot be represented as an `unsigned long long`

it throws an exception of type `range_error`

.

`range_error`

if the value
cannot be represented as an `unsigned long long`

.
bool **operator==**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;

The operator returns `true`

only if the value stored
in `lhs`

is equal to the value stored in `rhs`

.

bool **operator!=**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;

The operator returns `!(lhs == rhs)`

.

bool **operator>**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;

The operator returns `rhs < lhs`

.

bool **operator>=**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;

The operator returns `!(lhs < rhs)`

.

bool **operator<**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;

The operator return `true`

only if `lhs.compare(rhs)`

returns -1.

bool **operator<=**(const integer& lhs, const integer& rhs) noexcept;

The operator returns `!(rhs < lhs)`

.

integer **pow**(const integer& val, const integer& exp);
integer& **integer::pow**(const integer& exp);

The non-member function returns an object whose value is
`val`

. The member function sets the value of
^{exp}`*this`

to `*this`

and returns
^{exp}`*this`

. *Requires*: `0 <= exp`

.

integer **powmod**(const integer& val, const integer& exp, const integer& m);
integer& **integer::powmod**(const integer& exp, const integer& m);

The non-member function returns an object whose value is
`val`

. The member function sets the value of
^{exp} mod m`*this`

to `*this`

and returns
^{exp} mod m`*this`

. *Requires*: `0 <= exp`

and `m != 0`

.

void **integer::reserve**(size_t digits);

The member function ensures that `capacity() >= digits`

.

void **integer::shrink_to_fit**();

The member function is a non-binding request to reduce `capacity()`

to hold the current stored value without wasted space.

size_t **integer::size**() const noexcept;

The member function returns `capacity()`

.

integer **sqr**(const integer& val);
integer& **integer::sqr**();

The non-member function returns an object whose value is
`val * val`

. The member function sets the value
of `*this`

to `*this * *this`

and returns
`*this`

.

integer **sqrt**(const integer& val);
integer& **integer::sqrt**();

The non-member function returns an object whose value is the square root of
the value held by `val`

, discarding any fractional part.
*Requires*: `0 <= val`

. The member
function sets the value of `*this`

to the square root of the value
held by `*this`

, discarding any fractional part, and returns
`*this`

. *Requires*: `0 <= *this`

.

void **swap**(integer& lhs, integer& rhs) noexcept;
void **integer::swap**(integer& rhs) noexcept;

The non-member function swaps the stored values of
`lhs`

and `rhs`

. The member function
swaps the stored values of `*this`

and `rhs`

.

std::string **to_string**(const integer& val, int radix = 10) const;

The function returns a string representation of the value stored in
`val`

, using `radix`

as the radix.

`integer_data_proxy`

`class `**integer_data_proxy** {
// type names
typedef *unspecified* data_type;
typedef *unspecified* arithmetic_type;
typedef *unspecified* uarithmetic_type;
typedef *unspecified* iterator;
typedef *unspecified* const_iterator;
typedef *unspecified* reverse_iterator;
typedef *unspecified* const_reverse_iterator;
// constructors
integer_data_proxy(const integer_data_proxy& rhs) = delete;
integer_data_proxy(integer_data_proxy&& rhs);
// assign
integer_data_proxy& operator=(const integer_data_proxy& rhs) = delete;
integer_data_proxy& operator=(integer_data_proxy&& rhs) = delete;
// iterators
iterator begin() noexcept;
iterator end() noexcept;
reverse_iterator rbegin() noexcept;
reverse_iterator rend() noexcept;
const_iterator cbegin() const noexcept;
const_iterator cend() const noexcept;
const_reverse_iterator crbegin() const noexcept;
const_reverse_iterator crend() const noexcept;
// element access
data_type operator[](size_t pos) const;
data_type& operator[](size_t pos);
// capacity
size_t size() const noexcept;
size_t capacity() const noexcept;
void reserve(size_t digits);
void shrink_to_fit();
};

The class describes an object that can be used to examine and
modify the internal representation of an object of type
`integer`

. This allows advanced users to portably implement
algorithms that are not provided natively.

There can be only one `integer_data_proxy`

object
associated with a particular `integer`

object at any given
time; that object is obtained by calling the `get_data_proxy`

member
function on the `integer`

object. The resulting object can
be moved but not copied.

typedef *unspecified* **integer_data_proxy::arithmetic_type**;

The typedef defines a synonym for a signed arithmetic type that is large enough to hold the product of the largest values that the implementation will store in an object of type data_type.

iterator **integer_data_proxy::begin**();

The member function returns an iterator object such that the iterators `[begin(), end())`

point to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

size_t **integer_data_proxy::capacity**() const;

The member function returns the number of decimal digits that the `integer`

object can represent without
reallocating its internal storage.

const_iterator **integer_data_proxy::cbegin**() const;

The member function returns an iterator object such that the iterator range `[cbegin(), cend())`

points to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

const_iterator **integer_data_proxy::cend**() const;

The member function returns an iterator object such that the iterator range `[cbegin(), cend())`

points to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

typedef *unspecified* **integer_data_proxy::const_iterator**;

The typedef defines a synonym for an iterator that can be used to access but not
modify internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

typedef *unspecified* **integer_data_proxy::const_reverse_iterator**;

The typedef defines a synonym for a reverse iterator that can be used to access but not
modify internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

const_reverse_iterator **integer_data_proxy::crbegin**() const;

The member function returns a reverse iterator object such that the iterator range `[crbegin(), crend())`

points to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object in reverse order.

const_reverse_iterator **integer_data_proxy::crend**() const;

The member function returns a reverse iterator object such that the iterator range `[crbegin(), crend())`

points to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object in reverse order.

typedef *unspecified* **integer_data_proxy::data_type**;

The typedef defines a synonym for the type of the `integer`

object's internal data elements.

iterator **integer_data_proxy::end**();

The member function returns an iterator object such that the iterator range `[begin(), end())`

points to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

**integer_data_proxy::integer_data_proxy**(const integer_data_proxy&) = delete;
**integer_data_proxy::integer_data_proxy**(integer_data_proxy&& rhs);

The copy constructor is deleted. The move constructor copies the contents of `rhs`

and
leaves `rhs`

in an unspecified valid state.

typedef *unspecified* **integer_data_proxy::iterator**;

The typedef defines a synonym for an iterator that can be used to access
internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

integer& **integer_data_proxy::operator=**(const integer_data_proxy&) = delete;
integer& **integer_data_proxy::operator=**(integer_data_proxy&&) = delete;

The copy assignment and move assignment operators are deleted.

data_type **integer_data_proxy::operator[]**(size_t pos) const;
data_type& **integer_data_proxy::operator[]**(size_t pos);

The first member function returns the value of the internal data element at
index `pos`

. The second member function returns a reference to
the internal data element at index `pos`

.

reverse_iterator **integer_data_proxy::rbegin**();

The member function returns a reverse iterator object such that the iterator range `[crbegin(), crend())`

points to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object in reverse order.

reverse_iterator **integer_data_proxy::rend**();

`[crbegin(), crend())`

points to the internal data elements of the `integer`

object in reverse order.

void **integer_data_proxy::reserve**(size_t digits);

The member function ensures that `capacity() >= digits`

.

typedef *unspecified* **integer_data_proxy::reverse_iterator**;

The typedef defines a synonym for a reverse iterator that can be used to access
internal data elements of the `integer`

object.

void **integer_data_proxy::shrink_to_fit**();

The member function is a non-binding request to reduce `capacity()`

to hold the `integer`

object's current stored value without wasted space.

size_t **integer_data_proxy::size**() const;

The member function returns `capacity()`

.

typedef *unspecified* **integer_data:proxy::uarithmetic_type**;

The typedef defines a synonym for an unsigned arithmetic type that is large enough to hold the product of the largest values that the implementation will store in an object of type data_type.

`bits`

`class `**bits** {
public:
class reference;
// constructors
bits() noexcept;
bits(char val) noexcept;
bits(signed char val) noexcept;
bits(unsigned char val) noexcept;
bits(short val) noexcept;
bits(unsigned short val) noexcept;
bits(int val) noexcept;
bits(unsigned val) noexcept;
bits(long val) noexcept;
bits(unsigned long val) noexcept;
bits(long long val) noexcept;
bits(unsigned long long val) noexcept;
bits(std::initializer_list<uint_least32_t> list);
template <class CharT, class Traits, class Alloc>
explicit bits(const basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>& str,
typename basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>::size_t pos = 0,
typename basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>::size_t count = std::basic_string<CharT>::npos,
CharT zero = CharT('0'),
CharT one = CharT('1'));
template <class CharT>
explicit bits(const CharT *ptr,
typename basic_string<CharT>::size_t count = std::basic_string<CharT>::npos,
CharT zero = CharT('0'),
CharT one = CharT('1'));
explicit bits(const integer& val);
explicit bits(integer&& val);
bits(const bits& other);
bits(bits&& other) noexcept;
// assign and swap
bits& operator=(const bits& rhs);
bits& operator=(bits&& rhs);
bits& operator=(const integer& rhs);
bits& operator=(integer&& rhs);
void swap(bits& rhs) noexcept;
// conversions
unsigned long to_ulong() const;
unsigned long long to_ullong() const;
template <class CharT = char, class Traits = std::char_traits<CharT>, class Alloc = std::allocator<CharT> >
std::basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc> to_string(CharT zero = CharT('0'), CharT one = CharT('1')) const;
// logical operations
bits& operator&=(const bits& rhs);
bits& operator|=(const bits& rhs);
bits& operator^=(const bits& rhs);
bits operator~() const;
bits& operator<<=(size_t rhs);
bits& operator>>=(size_t rhs);
bits& operator<<(size_t rhs) const;
bits& operator>>(size_t rhs) const;
// element access and modification
bits& set() noexcept;
bits& set(size_t pos, bool val = true);
bits& reset() noexcept;
bits& reset(size_t pos);
bits& flip() noexcept;
bits& flip(size_t pos);
bool operator[](size_t pos) const;
reference operator[](size_t pos);
bool test(size_t pos) const noexcept;
bool all() const noexcept;
bool any() const noexcept;
bool none() const noexcept;
size_t count() const noexcept;
size_t count_not_set() const noexcept;
// comparison
bool operator==(const bits& rhs) const noexcept;
bool operator!=(const bits& rhs) const noexcept;
// capacity
size_t size() const noexcept;
size_t capacity() const noexcept;
void reserve(size_t bit_count);
void shrink_to_fit();
};

The class describes an object that represents an unbounded set of bits.

bool **bits::all**() const noexcept

The member function returns true only if all the bits in
`*this`

are set.

bool **bits::any**() const noexcept

The member function returns true if at least one of the
bits in `*this`

is set.

**bits::bits**() noexcept;
**bits::bits**(char val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(signed char val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(unsigned char val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(short val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(unsigned short val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(int val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(unsigned int val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(long val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(unsigned long val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(long long val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(unsigned long long val) noexcept;
**bits::bits**(std::initializer_list<uint_least32_t> list);
template <class CharT, class Traits, class Alloc>
explicit **bits::bits**(const basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>& str,
typename basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>::size_t pos = 0,
typename basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>::size_t count = std::basic_string<CharT>::npos,
CharT zero = CharT('0'),
CharT one = CharT('1'));
template <class CharT>
explicit **bits::bits**(const CharT *ptr,
typename basic_string<CharT>::size_t count = std::basic_string<CharT>::npos,
CharT zero = CharT('0'),
CharT one = CharT('1'));
explicit **bits::bits**(const integer& val);
explicit **bits::bits**(integer&& val);
**bits::bits**(const bits& other);
**bits::bits**(bits&& other) noexcept;

The default constructor constructs an object whose value is
`0`

.

The constructors that take integral arguments
construct objects whose value is the ones-complement representation of `val`

.

The constructor that takes an initializer_list constructs an object whose
stored value is equal to the elements of the initializer_list treated as a
series of unsigned 32-bit digits with the leftmost digit being most significant.
For example, the initializer list `{ 0xFE, 0xF0, 0xAA, 0x31 }`

represents the value `0xFE * 32`

.^{3} + 0xF0 * 32^{2} + 0xAA
* 32^{1} + 0x31 * 32^{0}

The constructors that take `string`

and `const char*`

objects construct an object whose value is the value represented by their argument,
treating `zero`

as 0 and `one`

as 1.

The constructors that take an argument of type `integer`

construct objects whose value is the ones-complement representation of `val`

.

The copy and move constructors construct objects with the same value as
`other`

. The move constructor leaves `other`

in an unspecified
valid state.

size_t **bits::capacity**() const noexcept;

The member function returns the number of bits that the object can represent without reallocating its internal storage.

size_t **bits::count**() const noexcept;

The member function returns the number of bits in `*this`

that are set, or `static_cast<size_t>(-1)`

if the number of
bits that are set is too large to fit in an object of type `size_t`

.

size_t **bits::count_not_set**() const noexcept;

The member function returns the number of bits in `*this`

that are not set, or `static_cast<size_t>(-1)`

if the number of
bits that are not set is too large to fit in an object of type `size_t`

.

void **bits::flip**() const noexcept;
void **bits::flip**(size_t pos);

The first member function toggles all the bits in the stored value.
The second member function toggles the bit at position `pos`

in the
stored value.

bool **bits::none**() const noexcept;

The member function returns true only if none of the bits in `*this`

is set.

bits& **bits::operator=**(const bits& rhs);
bits& **bits::operator=**(bits&& rhs);
bits& **bits::operator=**(const integer& rhs);
bits& **bits::operator=**(integer&& rhs);

The first two operators store the value of `rhs`

into
`*this`

. The last two operators store the ones-complement
representation of `rhs`

into `*this`

. All of the
operators return `*this`

.

bool **bits::operator==**(const bits& rhs) const noexcept;

The member operator returns `true`

only if the stored value in `*this`

is the same as the stored value in `rhs`

.

bool **bits::operator!=**(const bits& rhs) const noexcept;

The member operator returns `!(*this == rhs)`

.

bits **operator&**(const bits& lhs, const bits& rhs);

The operator returns an object whose value is the bitwise AND of the values
of `lhs`

and `rhs`

.

bits& **bits::operator&=**(const bits& rhs);

The member operator sets the value of `*this`

to the bitwise AND
of the values of `*this`

and `rhs`

and returns a
reference to `*this`

.

bits **operator|**(const bits& lhs, const bits& rhs);

The operator returns an object whose value is the bitwise inclusive OR of the
values of `lhs`

and `rhs`

.

bits& **bits::operator|=**(const bits& rhs);

The member operator sets the value of `*this`

to the bitwise
inclusive OR of the values of `*this`

and `rhs`

and
returns `*this`

.

bits **operator^**(const bits& lhs, const bits& rhs);

The operator returns an object whose value is the bitwise exclusive OR of
the values of `lhs`

and `rhs`

.

bits& **bits::operator^=**(const bits& rhs);

The member operator sets the value of `*this`

to the bitwise
exclusive OR of the values of `*this`

and `rhs`

and
returns `*this`

.

bits **bits::operator~**() const;

The member function returns an object that holds the complement
of the set of bits held by `*this`

.

bits **operator>>**(const bits& lhs, size_t rhs);

The operator returns an object whose stored value is the value of
the bits in `lhs`

shifted right `rhs`

positions.

bits& **bits::operator>>=**(size_t rhs);

The operator sets the stored value in `*this`

to the value of
the bits in `*this`

shifted right `rhs`

positions. It
returns `*this`

.

template <class CharT, class Traits>
std::basic_istream<CharT, Traits>& **operator>>**(
std::basic_istream<CharT, Traits>& str, bits& val);

The operator has the effect of ```
{ std::string temp; strm >>
temp; val = temp; }
```

. It returns `strm`

.

bits **operator<<**(const bits& lhs, size_t rhs);

The operator returns an object whose stored value is the value of
the bits in `lhs`

shifted left `rhs`

positions.

bits& **bits::operator<<=**(size_t rhs);

The operator sets the stored value in `*this`

to the value of
the bits in `*this`

shifted left `rhs`

positions. It
returns `*this`

.

```
template <class CharT, class Traits>
std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>&
```**operator<<**(
std::basic_ostream<CharT, Traits>& str, const bits& val);

The operator has the effect of `strm << val.to_string()`

and returns `strm`

.

bool **bits::operator[]**(size_t pos) const;
reference **bits::operator[]**(size_t pos);

The first member function returns the value of the bit at position `pos`

.
The second member function returns an object of type `bits::reference`

that refers to the bit at position `pos`

.

void **bits::reserve**(size_t bit_count);

The member function ensures that `capacity() >= bit_count`

.

bits& **bits::reset**() noexcept;
bits& **bits::reset**(size_t pos);

The first member function clears all the bits of `*this`

.
The second member function clears the bit as position `pos`

.
Both member functions return `*this`

.

void **bits::set**() noexcept;
void **bits::set**(size_t pos, bool val = true);

The first member function sets all the bits of `*this`

.
The second member function sets the bit at position `pos`

in the stored
value to `val`

.
Both member functions return `*this`

.

void **bits::shrink_to_fit**();

The member function is a non-binding request to reduce `capacity()`

to hold the current stored value without wasted space.

size_t **bits::size**() const noexcept;

The member function returns `capacity()`

.

void **swap**(bits& lhs, bits& rhs) noexcept;
void **bits::swap**(bits& rhs) noexcept;

The non-member function swaps the stored values of
`lhs`

and `rhs`

. The member function
swaps the stored values of `*this`

and `rhs`

.

bool **bits::test**(size_t pos) const noexcept;

The member function returns `true`

only if the bit
at position `pos`

in the stored value is non-zero.

```
template <class CharT = char, class Traits = std::char_traits<CharT>, class Alloc = std::allocator<CharT> >
std::basic_string<CharT, Traits, Alloc>
```**bits::to_string**(
CharT zero = CharT('0'), CharT one = CharT('1'));

The member function returns a string representation of the value stored in
`*this`

, using `zero`

to represent 0 and `one`

to represent 1.

unsigned long long **bits::to_ullong**() const;

The member function returns a value equal to the stored value of
`*this`

. It throws an exception of type `range_error`

if the value
cannot be represented as an `unsigned long long`

.

unsigned long **bits::to_ulong**() const;

The member function returns a value equal to the stored value of
`*this`

. It throws an exception of type `range_error`

if the value
cannot be represented as a `long long`

.

`bits::reference`

class **bits** {
class reference {
public:
reference& operator=(bool val) noexcept;
reference& operator=(const reference& rhs) noexcept;
bool operator~() const noexcept;
operator bool() const noexcept;
reference& flip() noexcept;
};
};

The nested class `bits::reference`

describes an object that
can be used to manage a particular bit in an object of type `bits`

.

reference& **bits::reference::flip**() noexcept;

The member function toggles the bit that the object manages.

reference& **bits::reference::operator=**(bool rhs) noexcept;
reference& **bits::reference::operator=**(const reference& rhs) noexcept;

The first member operator sets the bit that the object manages to the
value of `rhs`

. The second member operator sets the bit that
the object manages to the value managed by `rhs`

.

bool **bits::reference::operator~**() const noexcept;

The member operator returns `true`

if the bit managed by the
object is set, otherwise `false`

.

**bits::reference::operator bool**() const noexcept;

The member operator returns true if the bit that the object manages is set.